Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in a number of plants and animals, including humans. It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain. It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain and is frequently used for pain from myocardial infarction, kidney stones, and during labor. Morphine can be administered by mouth, by injection into a muscle, by injection under the skin, intravenously, injection into the space around the spinal cord, or rectally. Its maximum effect is reached after about 20 minutes when administered intravenously and 60 minutes when administered by mouth, while the duration of its effect is 3–7 hours. Long-acting formulations of morphine also exist.
Potentially serious side effects of morphine include decreased respiratory effort and low blood pressure. Morphine is addictive and prone to abuse. If one’s dose is reduced after long-term use, opioid withdrawal symptoms may occur. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, vomiting, and constipation. Caution is advised for use of morphine during pregnancy or breast feeding, as it may affect the health of the baby.
The graph shows the SERS spectrum of 10 mM aqueous solution of Insulin on S-AgAu hydrophilic substrate.
Laser wavelength: 785 nm
Laser power: 20 mW
Integration time: 4 seconds
Raman Spectrometer: B&WTEK
Lens magnification: 50x
Sampling method: immersion
The substrate used: S-AgAu hydrophilic (interchangeably, you can use one of our substrates)