Phages have certain features, such as their ability to form protein–protein interactions, that make them good candidates for use in a variety of beneficial applications, such as in human or animal health, industry, food science, food safety, and agriculture. It is essential to identify and characterize the proteins produced by particular phages in order to use these viruses in a variety of functional processes, such as bacterial detection, as vehicles for drug delivery, in vaccine development, and to combat multidrug resistant bacterial infections. Furthermore, phages can also play a major role in the design of a variety of cheap and stable sensors as well as in diagnostic assays that can either specifically identify specific compounds or detect bacteria. This article reviews recently developed phage-based techniques, such as the use of recombinant tempered phages, phage display and phage amplification-based detection. It also encompasses the application of phages as capture elements, biosensors and bioreceptors, with a special emphasis on novel bacteriophage-based mass spectrometry (MS) applications.